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What does immunological incompatibility mean?

Recently, infertility has become very common among married couples. The causes can be different and many of them can be successfully treated. There are cases of infertile marriage, when both sexual partners are healthy, and pregnancy does not occur. This is often due to their immunological incompatibility.

In the body, the immune system is aimed at fighting foreign protein compounds and infectious agents. Given that male gametes are foreign to the body, the correct immune response to them is very important. In a healthy woman, immunity does not form aggression against sperm. Immunological incompatibility of spouses is manifested in the fact that the female body produces antibodies that suppress sperm motility and their ability to fertilize the egg, cause sperm sticking.

Infertility can also be caused by a woman’s allergy to sperm. In this case, such a reaction of the body is specific to the sperm of a particular person, the other partner can be normally accepted by the body. Therefore, this type of infertility is considered as a paired option, rather than a diagnosis of each of their partners separately. There are several ways to diagnose immunological incompatibility. If the couple has no other causes of infertility, then tests and special tests are used. The simplest is the test contact, when under a microscope the mucus taken from the cervical canal during the ovulatory period in which male sperm are injected is examined. If the sperm in the cervical mucus behave actively – this indicates immunological compatibility. Another test method is a blood test. With its help it is possible not only to define existence of antibodies to sperm of the husband, but also to make a quantitative assessment of their concentration.

Incompatibility of partners can be combined with any other form of infertility, so the study of compatibility is part of a comprehensive examination of infertile couples.

Azhder Irina
Azhder Irina
Reproductionist, obstetrician-gynecologist

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