The ovaries are both a reproductive organ and a gland that performs the functions of the endocrine system. She is responsible for the production of sex hormones and the maturation of eggs. Dysfunctions of the ovaries include various disorders in their work caused by endocrine disorders, inflammatory processes, infections, operations. Their nature is not necessarily pathological. A decrease in ovarian function may be associated with age-related changes: juvenile disorders occur during adolescent restructuring of the reproductive system, menopause – during menopause.
How to identify a malfunction of the ovaries?
First of all, you need a gynecologist’s examination . Scheduled visits to this specialist allow you to diagnose any diseases in the early stages, including ovarian dysfunction. Signs of disorders are mainly associated with an imbalance in hormonal levels. These are:
- menstrual changes: delay or increase in regular uterine bleeding, irregularity of the cycle, abundant or scanty discharge;
- complete absence of menstruation for six months or more without presence of pregnancy;
- bleeding outside the menstrual cycle;
- pain and discomfort in the lower abdomen and / or in the lumbar spine;
- severe PMS with complications;
- skin problems, male pattern hair, increased sweating.
To diagnose violations, the gynecologist conducts an ultrasound examination. The female pelvic organs can be viewed transabdominally (through the abdominal wall) or transvaginally using an intravaginal probe. Also, the doctor prescribes a number of laboratory tests for hormones in the blood and urine: prolactin, follitropin, LH, progesterone and estrogen. It is also necessary to pass a smear on the flora to exclude genital infections. You may need hysteroscopy with further histological and immunohistochemical examination of the endometrium. In especially difficult cases, a therapeutic and diagnostic operation is performed – laparoscopy.
The reasons for the imbalance of sex hormones are ambiguous and can be different, including non-reproductive ones. Therefore, in the framework of diagnostics, general examinations are also often carried out, such as MRI, CT, electroencephalogram. To exclude diabetes mellitus, blood glucose levels are determined.
Diseases that can result from dysfunction of the ovaries
Although the symptomatology is not always pronounced and does not necessarily cause severe discomfort to the patient, it cannot be ignored. The reason is in serious complications that can have a violation of the hormonal functions of the ovaries. It:
- oncological diseases of the mammary glands and pelvic organs;
- persistent menstrual irregularities;
- incapable of bearing;
That is why the Lada clinic pays so much attention to checking the functions of the ovaries, including during the usual routine examination. Diagnosis of female infertility begins with an examination of the reproductive system and analysis of the menstrual cycle. With a high probability, specialists are able to find the reasons for the inability to conceive in this direction.
How to restore ovarian function – treatment methods
There are different forms of impairment: mild, moderate and severe. It is also important to determine what caused the pathology. If the violations provoked infectious diseases and inflammatory processes in the genitals, the patient is prescribed a course of antibiotic therapy. Quite often, after such therapy, the functions of the ovaries are restored on their own.
If the problems are caused by endocrine disorders, hormone therapy is performed, which can be aimed at eliminating the causes of the disease or be symptomatic. In the second option, the prescribed drugs are designed to normalize the general background and restore the body.
In especially difficult cases, surgical treatment is prescribed. Surgery may be needed if tumors, fibroids, cysts, endometriosis, etc. are found.
If the dysfunction is caused by external factors such as stress, obesity, bad habits, therapy consists in correcting nutrition and diet, introducing vitamins, moderate physical activity with the obligatory consultation of a psychologist and other specialists.
The decision on how to improve the work of a woman’s ovaries can only be made by a doctor. Self-medication is dangerous not only with the risk of developing serious complications that can harm health, but also with irreversible consequences, including infertility.