Male infertility is a violation of male reproductive function, which is expressed in the quantitative or qualitative change in sperm. They are either too few or too weak to reach the egg and fertilize it.
Varieties of inability to conceive are determined by anatomical and functional features.
Secretory infertility – sperm production is disturbed.
Excretory infertility is caused by obstruction of the passage of spermatozoa through the vas deferens.
Autoimmune infertility the body perceives its own spermatozoa as a foreign protein and produces antibodies to him.
Combined infertility is observed when sperm maturation is impaired and there are obstacles to ejaculation ( erectile dysfunction, for example).
Causes of male infertility
One of the most common factors causing male infertility are inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system, as a rule – sexually transmitted infections (STDs).
Endocrine pathology. A decrease in testosterone levels in hypogonadism (underdevelopment of the gonads) can be caused both by dysfunction of the testicles and by a violation of the regulatory mechanisms of hormone production at the level of the pituitary gland.
Varicocele , or varicose veins of the plexus plexus of the testicles, – pathology, predominantly occurring in adolescents.
Congenital malformations of the male genital area. This is a congenital malformation of the testicles, underdevelopment of the vas deferens, congenital obstruction of the epididymis, anomalies in the development of the genital organs.
General somatic pathology . Serious diseases such as renal failure and liver cirrhosis lead to impaired testosterone production and, as a result, infertility.
Immune infertility. The body regards sperm cells as foreign cells. An increased likelihood of developing autoimmune infertility is possible with: chronic obstruction of the vas deferens; reproductive tract infections; orchitis; prostatitis; varicocele; after testicular torsion or injury.
A man’s ability to conceive is also influenced by external factors: occupational hazards, alcohol, smoking;
physical factors: overheating (including excessive sauna addiction), magnetic fields, radiation;
some medications: antidepressants, hormones, some antibiotics.
Under the influence of these factors, the spermatogenic epithelium is damaged, and accordingly, sperm production decreases. Long-term stress also matters: under its influence, the synthesis of sex hormones decreases.