Intrauterine or simply artificial insemination is a special technology of reproductive medicine, in which sperm obtained without intercourse is injected into the uterine cavity. In this case, both the sex cells of the partner and the donor material can be used. This is one of those ART procedures in which the process of conception is as close to natural as possible. The period is also controversial. Artificial insemination carried out in a natural cycle or after hormonal stimulation.
IUI procedure is assigned in the following situations.
- When it is necessary to compensate for the subfertility of the male biomaterial. This is an insufficient ability to fertilize, which is diagnosed with oligozoospermia, decreased sperm motility, abnormal cell morphology.
- To bypass the cervical factor of infertility. This condition makes it difficult for sperm to pass through the cervical mucus in the cervix.
- For sexual offences. These include erectile dysfunction, anejaculation, vaginismus, congenital hypospadias, reversing ejaculation.
The insemination procedure is also performed with donor sperm. The indications for such a procedure are as follows:
- a woman’s desire to have a child without a sexual partner;
- risk of transmission of genetic pathologies by the spouse;
- azoospermia and other manifestations of male infertility.
The procedure is prescribed by a fertility specialist. Pre-performed infertility diagnostics. Only on the basis of the results obtained, the specialist makes a decision about the possibility of conducting IUI.
How to prepare for insemination?
When planning the procedure, the couple must undergo a thorough examination. Here are the tests for insemination a woman takes.
- Blood per group and Rh factor.
- UAC. In a general clinical blood test, the hemoglobin level, the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets are assessed. The result is valid for 1 month.
- Testing for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B and C. The laboratory’s response has been relevant for 3 months.
- Check for chlamydia, ureaplasmosis and mycoplasmosis. Most often it is carried out by PCR diagnostics.
- Smears from the vagina, cervical canal, urethra. The flora and the degree of cleanliness of the vagina are checked. The survey is carried out once a month.
- General urine analysis. The lab’s response is valid for a month.
- Cytological examination of smears from the cervix. Screening for atypia in cells.
- Hormone testing. Checking the level of FSH, LH, prolactin.
Also, the patient needs to visit a therapist and get an opinion on the state of health. The certificate is valid for 2 years. If possible, you should also submit an extract from the operations with the results of biopsies.
A man also needs some tests before undergoing IUI. Moreover, the list of tests is much smaller.
- Blood test for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis (every 3 months).
- Spermogram. Ejaculate analysis.
After examination, the semen is cleaned. The germ cells are enriched with special substances that increase the chances of successful conception. Using a soft catheter, the mixture is injected into the uterine cavity. The procedure is completely painless.
This assisted reproductive technology is not universal. It is advisable to carry out it only in the absence of abnormalities of oocytes, spermatozoa, as well as endometrium and fallopian tubes. Otherwise, the chances of fertilization are significantly reduced. According to the latest statistics, the overall effectiveness of IUI is limited to 18%.