According to statistics from the World Health Organization, about 100 million couples in the world suffer from infertility. This figure is growing every year. In Ukraine, every fifth family has reproductive problems. In some cases, infertility is caused by incompatibility. It is easy to check. Special tests for compatibility with a boyfriend or husband will help. First of all, at the stage of conception it is necessary to pass a test-contact, which analyzes the material from the cervix after sexual intercourse, and a MAP test to check the male ejaculate. It is also worth donating blood from a vein to compare the group and Rh factor.
The main reasons for the incompatibility of partners
Before making such a diagnosis, doctors conduct a thorough examination for infertility to rule out diseases and pathologies. Sex incompatibility is manifested both in the absence of pregnancy with regular sexual intercourse during the year, and in multiple miscarriages. The situation can be caused by various factors. Depending on this, the main types of incompatibility are distinguished.
It is biological. It is diagnosed in 10% of couples. Immunological incompatibility is checked by postcoital test and MAP test. It involves the body making antibodies that attack the germ cells. The problem can be both female and male.
In the first case, a woman’s immune system perceives sperm as foreign bodies and destroys them. Pregnancy is unlikely, but possible. In this case, the antibody continues to fight, but now with the embryo. Damage causes a miscarriage or fading of the fetus. The causes of immunological pathologies can be different. These are weak immunity, allergy to semen, past abortions, long-term use of condoms.
The male body can also produce antisperm antibodies. In a normal situation, the germ cells are protected by a hematotesticular barrier. But it can be disrupted due to infectious and cancer diseases, testicular failure, cancer, past surgeries and other factors.
There are pathologies when a woman’s body rejects a fertilized egg as a foreign set of genes. Genetic incompatibility of spouses most often arises as a result of differences in rhesus factors.
Let’s understand the question in more detail.
The influence of rhesus factor on conception and pregnancy can be analyzed immediately if you pass the tests on time. Conflict is most dangerous at the stage of childbearing.
Rhesus factor is a protein that may be present on the surface of red blood cells. It is positive when there is D antigen on the red blood cell membrane, or negative when there is no such compound. If the partners have different values, there may be a conflict. Then the mother’s immune system perceives “foreign” proteins as an infection and tries to get rid of them. Rhesus conflict most often occurs during the second pregnancy, when a woman’s body already has time to produce antibodies to attack.
The influence of blood type on conception and pregnancy is not so significant. Therefore, the main thing is to check the rhesus factors.
Another genetic incompatibility, HLA, is also possible. It is associated with leukocyte antigen. For the normal course of pregnancy, the HLA determinants of the father and mother should be as different as possible. If the similarity is too great, the female body rejects the genetic material of the male. At a high percentage of coincidences diagnose complete incompatibility, at average – partial. In the second case, the problem is solved with medication.
3. Incompatibility of the microflora.
Only 2-3% of couples make such a diagnosis. During ovulation, the female microflora must become safe for sperm. But sometimes that doesn’t happen. The microflora of the vagina retains its pathogenicity, continuing to destroy the genetic material of the partner.
How to get pregnant?
First of all, you need to determine the causes of infertility. To do this, first visit a reproductive therapist, undergo a general examination. The partner will need the services of a urologist. Excluding all other reasons, start checking compatibility. We have already mentioned how to do this. It is necessary to check the compatibility of blood for conception. It is also necessary to undergo a postcoital test to determine immunological reactions to semen. It is performed during ovulation 9-24 hours after intercourse. You may need 2-3 tests over several cycles.
Once the diagnosis is made, treatment of the incompatibility of the spouses can begin. It depends on the type of violation.
At immunological problems appoint antihistamines and immunosuppressive drugs or immunostimulants. In some cases, doctors recommend the temporary use of condoms to increase a woman’s sensitivity to semen. Intrauterine injection of a man’s genetic material or artificial insemination is also sometimes prescribed.
In the absence of parental blood compatibility, in vitro fertilization may also be a solution. In particularly difficult cases, the services of a surrogate mother are used.
In any situation, experienced competent doctors will find the best solution to overcome the incompatibility. The main thing is to trust the professionals.