The problem of breast diseases is one of the highest priorities in modern medicine. This is primarily due to the fact that in recent years there has been a steady increase in both benign and malignant diseases of the mammary glands throughout the world.
The mammary gland is an organ with a very easily changing shape. The reasons for its variability are diverse and are due to age and the physiological state of the organism.
The female breast reacts very sensitively to all processes occurring in the body, especially to hormones produced by the ovaries, thyroid gland, adrenal glands and pituitary gland. It is also influenced by gynecological and extragenital diseases. Therefore, regular check-ups are important at any age.
The structure of the mammary gland.
The mammary glands have a very complex internal structure. The mammary gland is a paired organ which consists of large lobes separated by connective and fatty layers, the total number of which varies from 10 to 15-20. Each includes about 30-80 small lobules, consisting of the smallest elements – alveoli. Large lobes have a conical shape and are located around the nipple (narrowed parts are close to it). The alveoli are collected in some tubes that form the milk ducts. It is through them that the milk produced by the alveoli is released. These tubes extend from each large lobe and extend to the nipple, which has several holes (milky pores). Through them, the nutrient fluid produced by the mother’s body goes out. Some ducts unite and go out in one milky pore.
The main and most common factors for the development of breast diseases are:
- Heredity – presence of benign or malignant neoplasms in the mammary glands at relatives on the mother’s side.
- Age is over 35-40 years.
- Early onset of menstruation and late menopausal period.
- Neuroendocrine disorders in the hypothalamic-pituitary system, dysfunction of the thyroid glands, ovaries.
- Metabolic disorders associated with diabetes and obesity.
- First pregnancy and childbirth at a later age.
- Breastfeeding is too long, too short, or not breastfeeding at all.
- Chronic inflammatory and hyperplastic processes of the internal genital organs.
- Artificial terminations of pregnancy, especially repeated ones.
- Prolonged neuropsychic overwork and frequent stressful conditions that contribute to the dysfunction of the neuroendocrine system.
- Diseases of the liver and biliary tract with impaired function.
- It should be noted the negative effect on the liver and biliary tract of the consumption of foods rich in fat, alcoholic beverages and other hepatotoxic substances.
- Lack of vitamins in food.
Excessive estrogen levels are one of the provocateurs of the development of breast cancer, and adipose tissue produces these hormones and serves as a “depot” for them. Therefore, overweight women are at risk.
A number of negative factors can be eliminated, for this you need to eat right, maintain a normal body weight and pay attention to physical activity.
A healthy lifestyle and regular check-ups are becoming the best measures to prevent breast disease.