The reason for prescribing a cervical biopsy is a poor colposcopy or PAP test result, as well as a positive test response for oncogenic types of human papillomavirus. These examinations are carried out first. Only if these tests reveal abnormalities, a biopsy is prescribed. In gynecology, this is one of the most informative studies. It allows early diagnosis of cancerous and precancerous conditions. Therefore, this examination can be prescribed even during pregnancy.
What is a cervical biopsy?
This is a diagnostic procedure in which the mucous membrane is collected. Extended colposcopy allows you to identify atypical cells and pinpoint the location of the lesion. The doctor removes part of the cervical epithelium from the cervix in one of the following ways:
- using a scalpel – a knife biopsy;
- tungsten loop – loop;
- puncture needle – puncture;
- soft pipette – pipette biopsy;
- surgical scissors – conchotomic;
- loop electrode – radio wave;
- laser beam – laser.
The last two methods are atraumatic and painless. The high-precision instrumentation does not affect healthy tissue. The vessels are immediately cauterized, thereby eliminating the risk of bleeding. No scars appear on the neck.
Pipel biopsy before IVF does not require cervical dilation. Therefore, this and other gentle methods are included in the complex of studies that accompanies in vitro fertilization.
After the procedure, the removed cervical biopsy is sent to the laboratory. The task of specialists is to determine the type, nature and structure of neoplasms. Diagnosing infertility often involves taking a biopsy. The doctor prescribes it in case of suspicion of cervical cancer. Abnormal cells can also indicate other diseases. Erosion of the cervix, dysplasia, endometriosis, adenomatosis, erythroplakia and other disorders are determined by examining the mucous membranes.
The direction for biopsy is preceded by pre-laboratory preparation. A woman must pass:
- general clinical laboratory tests of blood and urine;
- smears from the vagina and cervical canal;
- tests for sexually transmitted diseases;
- PAP test, as well as other tests prescribed by your doctor.
The analysis is carried out on the 5-7th day of the cycle, so that the epithelium has time to recover before the onset of the next menstruation. The procedure can be painful, therefore, as a rule, anesthesia is prescribed: injection or irrigation with lidocaine solution. The biopsy is performed in a gynecological chair. Here are the main steps in the procedure.
- Expansion of the vagina with a speculum.
- Treatment of the examination area with saline and acetic acid solution to cleanse the affected area.
- The use of coloring substances to determine the outlines of the lesion.
- Removal of a fragment of damaged tissue, followed by placing it in a container with formalin.
- Treatment of internal and external organs with an antiseptic.
- Stitching as needed.
Under normal conditions, the procedure lasts no more than 30 minutes. The results of the study will have to wait about a week or more. A histological examination of a biopsy is the study of abnormal cells under a microscope. The analysis determines the structure and type of morphological pathologies. Cytological testing helps to identify the nature of the neoplasms: benign or malignant.
Impact of biopsy on pregnancy
The procedure is rarely scheduled before delivery. A biopsy during pregnancy is justified only if there is a serious suspicion of cancer or other diseases that threaten the health and life of the woman and / or the fetus. In this case, the most gentle version of the procedure is prescribed. Typically, a radio wave biopsy is done during pregnancy. It is one of the safest technologies without the risk of infection and bleeding. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia. Recovery occurs within 2-3 weeks.
The procedure is performed only in the second trimester. This is the safest time for a biopsy. In the first and third trimesters, the risk of the procedure is unreasonably high. When pregnant before 12 weeks, the risk of miscarriage increases. In the later stages, a biopsy can provoke premature birth.
Thus, pregnancy is a relative contraindication to the procedure. A biopsy is not performed if the expectant mother was diagnosed with:
- inflammation in the vagina and cervix;
- infectious diseases of the genitourinary system;
- disorders of the circulatory system – problems with coagulation, etc.;
- heart, renal failure;
- immune problems;
A qualified doctor should order the analysis. In pregnancy, a referral is issued only after receiving unsatisfactory results from preliminary tests.