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Causes of male infertility

Infertility is diagnosed when a couple with regular sex life without contraception cannot conceive a child within a year. Whereas previously it was thought that female infertility was the main cause of the problem, it is now said that infertility is distributed roughly equally between male and female (40% female, 40% male and 20% combined). So the male infertility problem becomes more meaningful every year.

Diagnostics of male infertility

How to determine infertility in men? Modern reproductive medicine has many methods for detecting the cause of men childlessness. These include:

– Spermogram .This test assesses the quality of ejaculate. The doctor examines sperm composition, sperm mobility, morphological traits. There are cases where the ejaculate has virtually no sperm, or is weak and structurally dysfunctional. It is also possible for men to have akinesis – the immobility of most sperm.
– Hormone analysis. In this case, testosterone, FSH and LH are taken into account. These hormones can significantly affect the fertility of men.
– Ultrasound. A diagnostic method to study the state of the organs of the genitourinary and reproductive systems.
– PCR or polymerase chain reaction. This method makes it possible to identify the effects of various infectious diseases, including STDs, on the ability of a man to conceive.
– MAR-test, test for antisperm antibodies. This kind of diagnosis shows if antibodies are being developed on the partner’s sexual cells.
– Swab (flora and cytology). Thanks to this method the doctor studies «who and what» lives in the semen channels of the man.
– Biopsy. A method of investigation to diagnose infertility in men and to obtain sperm from the testicle or appendage. Which makes it possible to become a genetic father even in a severe form of infertility.
– Dopplerography. Method of estimating the blood filling of a man’s reproductive system.

The main causes of male infertility

The problems of conception in men can arise for different reasons and at any age. The main reason can be divided into:

– Problems on the part of the seminal fluid.
– Structural problems
– Hormonal factors of infertility.
– Other causes.

Male infertility is more common in the evaluation of sperm. The main ones are:

Oligospermia – characterized by a decrease in the volume of sperm.
Oligozoospermia- a decline in the concentration of sperm.
Asthenospermia – reduced mobility of sperm.
Teratospermia – more than 50% of sperm with abnormal structure.
Pyostermia – presence of pus in sperm.
Necrospermia – more than half of dead sperm in ejaculate

Structural problems such as:

– Erectile dysfunction.
– Malignant and benign neoplasms.
– Abnormal changes in the formation of the genital organs.
– Changes due to surgery or trauma.
– Disruption of the blood supply to the reproductive system.

Lifestyles and habits also affect a man’s ability to become a father. These factors have become very important in recent years and, if seemingly insignificant, they can very often cause problems with conception.

– Sedentary lifestyle, no physical activity.
– Superheated body (Beach rest, heated car seat, frequent sauna visit).
– Uncomfortable, narrow clothes and underwear. – Alcohol, cigarettes, antidepressants, steroids, food and sports supplements.
– High, stressful physical strain, intensive work. – Inappropriate diet leading to obesity and avitaminosis.
– Unprotected sex as a result of STDs and other infections of the genitourinary system.

The normalization of lifestyles can significantly improve the male fertility and eliminate infertility at an early stage of development.

Treatment of male infertility

Methods of treatment of male infertility depend to a large extent on the causes of their causes.
After the examination, the urologist-andrologue decides on the choice of the treatment protocol.
Male infertility therapy is the most common first-stage intervention. It consists of the administration of drugs (antibacterial, hormonal, immunomodulating, etc., depending on the causes of infertility) and the application of a number of procedures.
A lifestyle correction is also being carried out during this period. Elimination of harmful habits, normalization of nutrition, stabilization of mental state, adjustment of physical activity.
In the case of peripatetic male infertility, surgical intervention is carried out. Depending on the reasons, this can be

– Restoration of the permeability of the seed streams.
– TESA, TESE, MESE, PESA – methods of testicular tissue biopsy and testicular appendage.

Intrauterine insemination
– it is used in the immunological form of male infertility. IVF + ICSI as one of the most effective methods of fertilization in which a pre-selected sperm is injected into an ovules outside a woman’s body (in vitro).
In extreme cases, IVF programmes with sperm completion are used.
For all questions related to male infertility, please contact our specialists.

Kuznetsov Dmitry
Kuznetsov Dmitry
Andrologist, urologist

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