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DonorshipDonorship

Couples can choose a donor program in case if they have problems with their own reproductive cells (sperm cells or eggs) or if they have a disease, a child can inherit.

There are three types of donorship in reproductive medicine:

  • donorship of eggs (oocytes);
  • donorship of semen;
  • donorship of embryos.

Following are the indications for IVF with donor eggs: absence of eggs, functional deficiency of eggs, previous failed IVF attempts, etc.

Indications for IVF with donor semen:

On the part of a male — male infertility, ejaculation and sexual disorders, unfavorable medical and genetic prognosis.

On the part of a female — absence of a sexual partner

Patients of IVF program can be donors of embryos

Patients of IVF program who have unused cryopreserved embryos after the birth of a healthy child, can become embryo donors. In such a case, the embryos can be transferred to other patients for use, but only upon a written consent of the patients.

When selecting a donor, a married couple who are potential parents shall be provided with general information about the appearance, like height, weight, hair and eye color, nationality, education, availability of children, blood type, Rhesus factor, etc.

Availability of a severe male factor infertility does not exclude the use of donor eggs. Epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA, MESA, TESA) and single sperm cell injection into the egg cytoplasm (ICSI) — are the methods of male infertility treatment that can be applied in combination with use of donor eggs.

In the past, those married couples that had severe pathologies of eggs or semen had only two options: adoption or childlessness. Nowadays, donorship of eggs, TESA and ICSI offer a third option: a possibility for a married couple to experience pregnancy and childbirth together.

Programs

In order to treat severe forms of male infertility, to avoid risk of hereditary diseases and to help single women a donor semen may be used.

The donor semen may be used for intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in an extracorporeal fertilization cycle. The semen donation program includes all the same stages as the common IVF or IUI program, except that the donor’s semen is used for fertilization.

In all cases, donor’s semen is subject to cryopreservation and shall be stored in liquid nitrogen vapor tanks. Use of the cryopreserved semen instead of the “fresh” does not decrease treatment efficiency.

Requirements for a sperm donor:

  • A male at the age of 20-40 years old and having a healthy born child can become a donor;
  • A donor should have no negative phenotypic characteristics;
  • Semen donorship is allowed only upon the absence of somatic and hereditary diseases that can have a negative impact on the health of a future child;
  • Donorship is not allowed in case of use of narcotic, psychotropic or toxic substances, abuse of alcohol;
  • Donors undergo thorough testing, including a genetic one;
  • Couples or a patient voluntarily chooses a donor based on the phenotypic characteristics of an anonymous donor.

A donor shall undergo an extended medical and genetic testing. He shall definitely be tested for HIV infection, syphilis, hepatitis B, C, and a number of sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, chlamydiosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes, ureaplasmosis, mycoplasmosis, etc.). He shall be examined by a physician, urologist and shall undergo a medical and genetic consultation, karyotyping, test for mucoviscidosis (cystic fibrosis) and AZF factor. In addition, such donor must be consulted by a psychiatrist.

The donor’s semen is frozen and stored for half a year (of the so-called quarantine). It shall then be repeatedly tested for HIV infection, syphilis and viral hepatitis, as these diseases can only be detected in several months after being infected. Use of thawed donor’s semen is allowed only upon obtaining negative findings of the tests repeatedly performed for the same donor in 6 months.

Relatives, patient’s friends or anonymous professional donors, selected and tested by the Clinic, can become egg donors.

Egg donor’s identity shall remain anonymous for the patients. At the same time, the donor herself shall have no information about the patients her eggs are intended for.

Millions of women all of the world dream of experiencing the happiness of maternity, alas, not every one of them is given such a possibility. These women live the dream that maybe someday a miracle will happen and they shall become mothers.

Apart from the material consideration, you can contribute to the creation of a new life and making someone’s most cherished and most important dream in their life come true — the dream of becoming a mother.

Requirements for an egg donor:

  • age of 18 to 36;
  • having a healthy born child;
  • should have no negative phenotypic characteristics;
  • satisfactory somatic health;
  • have no contraindications to participation in oocyte donation program;
  • have no hereditary diseases;
  • have no bad habits: drug addiction, alcoholism, inhalants abuse;
  • A donor shall undergo a comprehensive testing for HIV infection, syphilis, hepatitis B, C, gonorrhea, chlamydiosis, cytomegalovirus, genital herpes. In addition, the donor shall be examined by a physician and undergo an interview with a psychologist.

What complications may occur during the procedure?

Main and theoretically potential complication of the procedure is ovarian hyperstimulation, when there is a significant number of eggs available and they increase in size, which causes painful sensations in the small pelvis. To avoid it, a fertility specialist shall perform several ultrasound monitoring sessions within the stimulation cycle in order to make sure that the eggs maturation process would go as planned.

A compensation shall be paid to a donor in the Clinic immediately after the oocyte retrieval.

A coordinator for donor programs will tell you about the financial and organizational terms and conditions in more detail.

Indications for IVF combined with donor eggs (oocytes) are as follows:

  • Lack of eggs because of the premature ovarian syndrome, radio- or chemotherapy, natural menopause, hystero-oophorectomy as well as abnormal development;
  • functional deficiency of eggs in women that have genetic disorders that could be inherited by offspring;
  • inefficiency of previous attempts of standard IVF with multiple outcomes of low quality embryos and their transfer did not result in pregnancy; or poor response of ovaries to ovulation stimulation.

Requirements for oocytes (eggs) donor

  • age of 18 to 36;
  • having a healthy born child;
  • should have no negative phenotypic characteristics;
  • satisfactory somatic health;
  • have no contraindications to participation in oocyte donation program;
  • have no hereditary diseases;
  • have no bad habits: drug addiction, alcoholism, inhalants abuse;

All oocyte donors shall be thoroughly tested in the Clinic.

One of the most important factors that influence the IVF treatment method efficiency is the egg quality that is determined by the age of a woman the eggs were retrieved from. All eggs that will remain in the woman’s organism through all of her life are formed as early as during the first weeks of her intrauterine development. From the beginning of puberty the cells are being spent in every menstrual cycle until depletion of their reserve and until the ovaries stop functioning.

In addition, as the woman ages, the number of egg cells with various chromosomal pathologies increases. A widespread type of chromosomal pathology is a Down syndrome that occurs more often if a woman gets pregnant when she is older than 38 years. Decrease of fertility with age is a natural process and currently there is no way to “rejuvenate” the ovaries, which is why the infertility treatment efficiency in women older than 35 years of age decreases significantly. Use of egg cells retrieved from young women-donors drastically increases the treatment efficiency due to a good quality of their eggs.

Treatment procedure

Consultation of a fertility specialist. Examination of a couple.

Selection of treatment method using ART with donation (of oocytes, semen or embryos)

Selection of a donor (of oocytes, semen or embryos)

ART program implementation. Transfer of embryos into the patient’s uterine cavity. Pregnancy diagnostics (HCG test)

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