Couples can choose a donor program in case if they have problems with their own reproductive cells (sperm cells or eggs) or if they have a disease, a child can inherit.
There are three types of donorship in reproductive medicine:
- donorship of eggs (oocytes);
- donorship of semen;
- donorship of embryos.
Following are the indications for IVF with donor eggs: absence of eggs, functional deficiency of eggs, previous failed IVF attempts, etc.
Indications for IVF with donor semen:
On the part of a male — male infertility, ejaculation and sexual disorders, unfavorable medical and genetic prognosis.
On the part of a female — absence of a sexual partner
Patients of IVF program can be donors of embryos
Patients of IVF program who have unused cryopreserved embryos after the birth of a healthy child, can become embryo donors. In such a case, the embryos can be transferred to other patients for use, but only upon a written consent of the patients.
When selecting a donor, a married couple who are potential parents shall be provided with general information about the appearance, like height, weight, hair and eye color, nationality, education, availability of children, blood type, Rhesus factor, etc.
Availability of a severe male factor infertility does not exclude the use of donor eggs. Epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA, MESA, TESA) and single sperm cell injection into the egg cytoplasm (ICSI) — are the methods of male infertility treatment that can be applied in combination with use of donor eggs.
In the past, those married couples that had severe pathologies of eggs or semen had only two options: adoption or childlessness. Nowadays, donorship of eggs, TESA and ICSI offer a third option: a possibility for a married couple to experience pregnancy and childbirth together.