What diseases does the urologist deal with?
The problems of the genitourinary system, which the urologist specializes in, include:
- Diseases of the urinary tract and bladder: cystitis, urethritis, urolithiasis, various problems with urination (retention or urinary incontinence, frequent trips to the toilet, etc.), bladder dysplasia.
- Kidney diseases: glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis, nephroptosis, etc.
- Diseases of the male reproductive system: prostatitis, epididymitis, orchitis, balanoposthitis, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) – chlamydia, papillomavirus infection, ureaplasmosis, mycoplasmosis, herpes and other problems.
When do they go to the urologist?
Finding one or more of the following symptoms in oneself indicates the need to visit a urologist.
- problems urinating;
- changes in the smell, color and volume of urine;
- the presence of discharge from the urethra;
- burning and itching;
- pain or discomfort (lower abdomen, lower back, perineum, groin and genitals);
- any visible changes in the semen (in men);
- change in the appearance of the genitals;
- trauma to the genitourinary organs.
A visit to the doctor cannot be postponed: the earlier you start to fight the disease, the faster and easier you can cope with the problem.
Confidential and pleasant environment, guarantee of comfortable treatment. Depending on your complaints, as well as according to the results of the examination, the doctor will determine which tests and studies should be prescribed to clarify the diagnosis and prescribe the optimal treatment regimen.
Ureteroscopy and cystoscopy are highly effective imaging techniques that are used to assess the condition of the urethra and bladder. In addition to endoscopic studies, ultrasound diagnostics is also actively used in urology. Ultrasound examines the condition of the prostate, bladder, kidneys and other organs. If necessary, X-ray examination, magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography are performed.
The most commonly used diagnostic methods include laboratory tests, such as a complete blood count, a blood test for sexually transmitted infections, semen analysis, bacterial culture, analysis of prostate discharge, etc.
Treatment of urological diseases.
Modern methods of both conservative and surgical treatment of urological diseases are used. Such physiotherapeutic methods (laser and ultrasound therapy) show excellent results. The use of various physiotherapeutic procedures in the complex treatment (in addition to drug treatment) allows you to more effectively fight the disease, guarantees a complete recovery, reduces the treatment time, and also minimizes the likelihood of relapse.
The optimal treatment for a number of urological diseases is surgery. Surgical treatment of diseases, depending on the complexity and scale of the intervention, can be carried out both in a hospital setting and on an outpatient basis.
Surgical treatment of urological diseases
- for urolithiasis: lithotripsy – removal of stones from the kidneys, ureterolithotripsy – removal of stones from the ureters, cystolithotripsy, or crushing and removal of bladder stones;
- in the case of malignant and benign neoplasms of the urinary and reproductive system, they are removed, including the removal of prostate adenoma and prostatectomy – removal of the prostate gland.
- with urinary incontinence;
- in the case of anomalies in the development of the organs of the genitourinary system in men and the urinary organs in women.
- And also other andrological surgical interventions: hydrocele, varicocele, phimosis, frenulotomy, papillomas and condylomas.
It is also possible to carry out an operation for paraphimosis, to carry out reconstructive and aesthetic surgery of the external genital organs, to treat various injuries of the genitourinary system.
The scheme for eliminating any problems and treating diseases, regardless of their etiology and localization, is determined on an individual basis. Any case is unique, therefore only such an approach at all stages (diagnosis, drawing up an effective treatment regimen, control) will give the best result. Our doctors are highly qualified, have extensive experience in their specialty and are ready to solve the most difficult problems.
Urolithiasis or urolithiasis is a disease characterized by the formation of stones in the organs of the urinary system (kidneys, ureters, bladder).
The most common form of urolithiasis is nephrolithiasis, that is, the formation of kidney stones. The disease can occur at any age, but more often in adults (regardless of gender).
Urolithiasis in children most often occurs due to malformations of the urinary tract and nephron.
Depending on the predominance of a chemical in the composition of stones, several types of urolithiasis are distinguished: calcium, urate, oxalate and mixed.
Acquired forms of the disease are usually the result of:
- drinking drinking water with high hardness;
- beriberi (lack of vitamins A, B, D);
- eating a large amount of animal protein, refined sugar;
- taking a number of medications that create preconditions for the formation of stones;
- hypodynamia due to prolonged bed rest, etc.
The disease can develop against the background of metabolic disorders, some systemic diseases, in which there may be an increased content of calcium or uric acid in the blood.
Diagnosis of urolithiasis
Diagnosis of urolithiasis, in addition to laboratory tests, includes various instrumental types of research. Ultrasound examination makes it possible to detect a stone and determine its localization, size, quantity.
In addition, the examination makes it possible to identify possible complications: obstruction of the urinary tract, the presence of an inflammatory process, as well as establish the type and form of urolithiasis.
Symptoms of the disease
The main symptom of the disease is severe pain of varying intensity, depending on the location and size of the stone. Sometimes the pain can be so unbearable that pain relievers are required.
Renal colic is triggered by physical overload and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system. If the outflow of urine from the renal pelvis and the upper third of the ureter is impaired, pain can be localized in the lumbar region, given to the thigh and groin region. If the stone is in the lower third of the ureter, then the pain can be given to the genitals, there are false urges to urinate. Sometimes during renal colic, blood is found in the urine.
ABOUT THE TREATMENT OF URELINE DISEASE
- Drug treatment – used, as a rule, in the early stages of the disease, i.e. with minor violations.
- Non-surgical treatment:
- Medicinal litholysis is a non-surgical dissolution of certain types of stones. This technique should be carried out strictly under the supervision of a urologist, since with improper treatment it is possible not only not to dissolve the stones, but also to provoke their further growth.
- Remote shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a non-contact method of crushing stones. During the procedure, a special device, using X-ray and / or ultrasonic guidance, targets a shock wave at the stone, producing a large number of low-intensity shock shocks. As a result of this, its fragmentation or complete destruction occurs, the fragments leave on their own through the natural urinary tract.
- Contact lithotripsy (CLT) is an endoscopic destruction and removal of stones that have moved from the kidney to the ureter, as well as kidney and bladder stones through the urethra or urethra without incisions and punctures. The operation is performed using ultrathin safe flexible endoscopes (ureteroscopes) and laser systems for effective contact stone crushing. Bladder stones are destroyed through a special urethrocystoscope using ultrasonic, mechanical and laser energy.
- Percutaneous or percutaneous nephrolithotomy / lithotripsy / litholapaxy – removal of large and hard-to-reach kidney stones, up to giant stones over 5 centimeters in diameter, through mini-access – several small punctures in the lumbar region.
- Laparoscopic and robot-assisted operations for urolithiasis, renal cysts, nephroptosis (prolapse of the kidney). This is a minimally traumatic surgery – access to the problem area is carried out through 3 small (5-10 mm) incisions in the lower abdomen. The terms of rehabilitation for such operations are much shorter in comparison with abdominal interventions.
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